Since 1950, Republic Day has been celebrated annually in India on 26 January, to commemorate the date on which the Constitution of India came into force. For over 200 years, India was a British colony and, after the Indian independence movement, became independent from the control of the British Raj. While India became independent on August 14, 1947, it still had no permanent constitution, and Indian laws were based on a modified version of the Government of India Act 1935, established by the British.
However, two weeks later, on 29 August 1947, a drafting committee was formed, with Dr. B R Ambedkar as chairman, to draft a permanent Indian Constitution. The Constitution was eventually drafted after a lot of hard work, and January 26 was chosen as the day to recognize India as the Sovereign Republic. The significance of January 26 is that the Indian National Congress, as opposed to British control, made the well-known Declaration of Indian Independence (Purna Swaraj) on that day in 1929.
And although the Constitution came into force with a democratic form of government in 1950, the Indian Constituent Assembly adopted it on 26 November 1949. This completed the transformation of the nation into becoming a sovereign republic.
On 4 November 1947, the draft of the constitution was presented to the Indian Constituent Assembly. The 308 members of the Assembly met in sessions open to the public over the course of 166 days, which were spread over two years, and made several reforms. Finally, on January 24, 1950, two handwritten copies of the Constitution were signed by the Assembly members, one in English and one in Hindi. And history was made two days later. Dr. Rajendra Prasad’s first term of office as President of the Indian Union commenced on that day. Under the transitional terms of the new Constitution, the Constituent Assembly became the Parliament of India.
To commemorate the Indian Constitution, January 26 is celebrated, replacing the Government of India Act (1935) as India’s governing law. And now it is celebrated with a lot of fervor throughout India. Magnificent parades by regiments of the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force, Police, and Paramilitary Forces march in Delhi, at Rajpath, and there is also a show of Indian defense prowess with the new missiles, aircraft, and weapons systems on display. During the parade, exquisite tableaux reflecting the beauty of all the states of India are also seen. There are also Air Force sky displays. This year, India will be celebrating its 71st Republic Day.